Valentine’s Day…and Other Rabbit Holes

By J. L. Starkey

Deadwood, from Mt. Moriah Cemetery, The John C. H. Grabill Collection, 1888 [Public Domain Photo]
"Tell me I was dreaming.
That you didn't leave me here to cry...
Tell me that you didn't say goodbye."

 - Bruce Brown and Travis Tritt

This week’s “love” prompt for 52 Ancestors had me pondering matters of the heart while wondering if I really needed to research the mother of the third husband of the second wife of my third-great-grandfather.

It’s a topic that genealogists often debate: How far down the ancestral rabbit hole should we go? My answer has always been that I go where the interesting stories are hiding, rabbit holes or not!

Of course I needed to conduct that research, because that is how I found Elvira Hoyt. The rumored one-time proprietress of Deadwood’s infamous Bulldog Ranch, Elvira was also (technically) my step-fourth-great-grandmother, because her son, James, married the widow of my third-great-grandfather, J.C. Muehleisen [1], and…

…on second thought, let me begin at the beginning (or the ending, depending on how you look at love stories).

The Tragic Valentine’s Day of 1885

The Black Hills Daily Times, 14 Feb 1885, p. 3, cols. 1 & 3

The news clippings seemed to jump out from the page. One noted that Valentine’s Day would not be extensively observed in Deadwood that year. The other, two columns to the right, reported that the remains of my third-great-grandfather, “…reached the city last evening and were taken to the shop of the deceased…where they were viewed by many friends. Funeral will take place…at 2 pm today [2].”

As I read those words, I thought about J.C.’s widow. She had waited ten agonizing days for her husband’s remains to arrive, all the while planning his funeral, which would be held (through a cruel twist of fate) on Valentine’s Day. Did she relive his funeral every Valentine’s Day, and shed bitter tears on a day intended for celebrations of love? Surely she married J.C. expecting at least 25 years of happily-ever-after. Instead, she had fewer than 25 months.

Curiosity about her led me down an ancestral rabbit hole, and there I found an amazing story of love, loss, and survival. It seems fitting to tell that story today, 134 years to the day after J.C. arrived in Deadwood for his final farewell. Readers, I am honored to introduce my step-third-great-grandmother, Carrie Olson.

Love, Marriage, and Sorrow

Born in Wisconsin to Norwegian Immigrants [3], Carrie came to the Black Hills around 1882, possibly to work as a practical nurse [4]. She married J.C. soon after his February 1883 divorce from Gabriella O’Neill [5], and later that year, gave birth to their son, Carl [6]. A local newspaper shared a whimsical story to announce the blessed event.

The Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times, 5 October 1883

Call me a hopeless romantic, but I believe that J.C. found his true love in Carrie. He and Gabriella had been separated for over a decade, and during that time, he had matured into a respected member of the Deadwood community. By 1885, he was a business owner, a successful prospector, a family man, and the Chancellor Commander of Knights of Pythias Lodge No. 8 [7]. In 2019 terms, experts would probably say that he was living his best life.

But happiness was fleeting for the young couple. J.C. died tragically less than two years after he married Carrie, and was laid to rest on that bitterly sad Valentine’s Day in 1885. Carrie then turned to the task of settling her intestate husband’s estate, a process that dragged on for over two years [8].

Carrie Olson Muehleisen is appointed Administratrix of J.C.’s estate, 4 April 1885

Thanks to the Kubler-Ross model, we are all somewhat familiar with the stages of grief [9]. Perhaps Carrie was in the “anger” stage when, in the midst of settling J.C.’s estate, she lashed out at those she blamed for his death. In June 1885, she filed a lawsuit against the Wyoming Stage Company for the staggering amount of $10,000 (over $250,000 in 2019 terms) [10]. Local papers were not supportive of Carrie’s action, as they felt the suit was frivolous. The court system apparently shared this opinion; the suit was not heard until 1887, and then to no avail [11].

The Black Hills Daily Times, 20 Jun 1885

Tragedy, Struggle, and Survival

Rapid City Journal, 18 Sept 1888

Carrie moved to Rapid City shortly after J.C.’s death, but happiness remained elusive. In September 1888, she suffered another devastating loss when her beloved son Carl died of typhoid fever.

This time, Carrie found no scorn from the press. They were finally sympathetic to the grieving widow and mother, with one writer stating that “only a mother who has lost a loved and only child may appreciate the depth of this affliction [12].” Carrie issued a public thank-you for the support, and noted that the memory of the kindness of others would last “as long as life.”

The Black Hills Weekly Journal, 21 Sept 1888

Carrie was thirty years old, alone, and dealing with profound grief as she attempted to settle young Carl’s estate, which included land and money inherited from his father [13]. The next few years were surely horrific as she found herself back in probate court, retracing the steps she had walked after her husband’s death.

I wondered if Carrie reached her breaking point on April 30, 1890, when the final settlement of Carl’s estate was again continued, with no end date in sight. Just nine weeks later, she made a life-altering (and probably unwise) decision [14].

On 6 July 1890, Carrie married Henry Emhoff and moved to the Hill City area [15]. Their union was celebrated by friends and family, and surely Carrie hoped to find peace and happiness with this fresh start. But once again, happiness was to remain out of reach. Less than 22 months after they married, Carrie and Henry divorced [16].

At Last…Happier Times

Homestake Works Mine, 1889 [John C. H. Grabill Collection, Public Domain Photo]

Perhaps the third time was the charm, for within two months of her divorce from Henry Emhoff, Carried married again. Her new husband, James Newman (Jim) Hoyt [17], was the son of James and Elvira Hoyt [18]. A longtime employee of the Homestake Mining Company, Jim had been raised by single mother Elvira after his father died during the Civil War [19].

It appeared that Carrie finally found happiness in her life with Jim. They raised two sons together and managed a successful cattle ranch over the course of their 36-year marriage [20]. When she died in April 1929, Carrie’s obituary stated that the Black Hills “…[lost] a pioneer woman of much worth [21].”

While the obituary painted a glowing portrait of a woman who had lived a full and happy life, I noted that there was no mention of Carrie’s painful past. Had she never told her sons about their older brother? Maybe she hoped to spare them the pain of her grief, so she kept her sorrows to herself. I wondered if she ever visited Carl’s grave, or if the memories were simply too much to bear.

Certainly, most people would say that Carrie was a strong woman. But would she have agreed with that description? During her struggles, she may have said that she didn’t feel strong at all, but was just doing her best to survive. She probably would have agreed that, “Grief is never something you get over. It’s something that walks beside you every day [24]. ”

Thank you, Carrie, for allowing me to discover your story. You are proof that some ancestral rabbit holes are well worth the time and effort, and I am proud to count you as a member of my extended family.

Author’s Note: This is Part III in a series chronicling the life of Johann Conrad (J.C.) Muehleisen. For more information, see: &


  1. Bryant, Jerry L., and Barbara Fifer. Bad Boys of the Black Hills…And Some Wild Women, Too. Helena: Farcountry Press, 2008. (See also: Bryant, Jerry L., and Barbara Fifer. Deadwood Saints and Sinners. Helena: Farcountry Press, 2016.)
  2. The Black Hills Times, 14 February 1885, p. 3, col. 1 & 3. Retrieved from
  3., 1880 United States Federal Census, Freeman, Crawford, Wisconsin; Roll: 1420; Page: 54A; Enumeration District: 044.
  4. Obituary, Rapid City Journal, Rapid City, South Dakota, 19 April 1929, p. 8, col. 4-5. Retrieved from
  5., North Dakota and South Dakota, Wills and Probate Records, 1878-1928 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2015. (Note: While a marriage record for J.C. and Carrie has not yet been found, she is listed as his widow on his probate record.)
  6. Daily Deadwood Pioneer Times, Deadwood, South Dakota, 5 Oct 1883, p. 4, col. 3. Retrieved from 
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth, M.D. On Death and Dying. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1969.
  10. “The Late John Muehleisen,” The Black Hills Daily Times, Deadwood, South Dakota, 20 Jun 1885, p. 4, col. 3. Retrieved from
  11. The Black Hills Daily Times, Deadwood, South Dakota, 30 Mar 1887, p. 2, col. 3. Retrieved from
  12. “Died,” Rapid City Journal, Rapid City, South Dakota, 18 Sept 1888, p. 1, col. 2. Retrieved from
  13. Lawrence County Probate Case Records, Box 5120, Box 8, File 131-134, Images 395-435. Retrieved from, North Dakota and South Dakota, Wills and Probate Records, 1878-1928. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2015.
  14. The Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times, Deadwood, South Dakota, 1 May 1890, p. 2, col. 3. Retrieved from
  15. Pennington County Marriages, Book A, (See also: The Black Hills Weekly Journal, Rapid City, South Dakota, 11 Jul 1890, p. 1, col. 4. Retrieved from
  16. Rapid City Journal, Rapid City, South Dakota, 8 May 1892, p. 4, col. 1. Retrieved from
  17. “Married,” Black Hills Weekly Times, Deadwood, South Dakota, 9 Jul 1892, p. 1, col. 1. Retrieved from
  18., 1880 United States Federal Census, Saint Peter, Nicollet, Minnesota; Roll: 627; Page: 87C; Enumeration District: 181.
  19. The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; Record Group Title: Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, 1773 – 2007; Record Group Number: 15; Series Title: U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934; Series Number: T288.
  20. “Services Friday for Black Hills Pioneer,” Rapid City Journal, Rapid City, South Dakota, 3 Nov 1938, p. 2, col. 4. Retrieved from
  21. Ibid.
  22. Irwin, Terri,

1 thought on “Valentine’s Day…and Other Rabbit Holes

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Davies of Mold

and also Parry, Wright, and Darlington

An Ordinary Girl With MS

Just an Ordinary Girl Blogging about MS & Life

Princes, Paupers, Pilgrims & Pioneers

“There are two lasting bequests we can give our children: One is roots, the other is wings.” Teaching children values and giving them the opportunity to excel is essential to good parenting. However, I feel I must also provide my children (and myself) insight into the ones who came before us: our ancestors whose lives and stories have shaped us into who we are. This is my journey; these are their stories…

Gerry's Family History

Sharing stories from my family history

Ireland, Multiple Sclerosis & Me

On becoming normal when life with MS is a beautiful mess

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close